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4月15日环球时报英文版《Out with the old in with the fake 》

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发表于 2012-4-18 12:54:00 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

Out with the old in with the fake
摧毁真古迹,兴建假仿古

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Global Times | April 15, 2012 21:08
By Liang Chen

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北京南中轴线末端的永定门城门重建于2004年完工
The reconstruction of Beijing’s Yongdingmen gate at the south end of the city’s central axis was completed in 2004. Photo: CFP
 
尽管在过去十年中一直致力于推动保存北京城的现存古迹,张巍对市政府宣布的“中轴线改造“计划也并非全然赞同。
Even though Zhang Wei has spent the past decade pushing for the preservation of the remaining historic sites of old Beijing, he was not at all happy when the municipal government announced its largest restoration project aimed at reviving the majesty of the city's central axis.

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对于今年即将启动的6处仿古建筑项目,张巍认为项目计划草率,其设计仅仅是为了吸引游客为目的。
Six construction projects using iconic Chinese architecture are slated to begin this year, but Zhang believes the plan is poorly thought-out and is only designed to capitalize on local history and culture by luring tourists to the sites.

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北京一直以来享有盛名的历史古迹,却在近些年逐步消失。建于明清年间的古城墙,建国后在“破四旧,消灭封建余毒”的思潮中,以及其后修建二环路的时候已被拆除大半。近来,在建设“现代化城市”的理念驱动下,北京古城旧貌已被大量摧毁。
Beijing has long been renowned for its ancient architectural wonders, but much of it has been lost in recent generations.  Its city wall, built during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) and the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), was mostly demolished to make way for the Second Ring Road after the founding of the People's Republic of China partially in an attempt to wipe out remnants of the disgraced feudal past. More recently the city's drive for modernization has wrecked vast areas of the city's old downtown.

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目前城市规划是将新建筑“做旧”以弥补过去的错误的做法是行不通的。老北京网(oldbeijing.org)创建人张巍表示:“他们要建造的仿古建筑不是真正的历史文化古迹。老房子被毁,新建筑不可能如老房子般承载历史。” 他曾经用照片记录了北京城那些曾经布满了古色古香,由古代达官贵人居住的四合院而如今已经迅速消失的胡同。
Now the city plans to build new buildings that will look old, which Zhang says are attempted fixes for past failures that won't work. "They're building replicas that won't be cultural relics at all. The old buildings have been demolished, while the newly-built ones will carry no historical weight," said Zhang, who founded the website Old Beijing (oldbeijing.org) and has created a photographic record of the city's fast disappearing hutong, where many officials of the imperial court lived in quaint courtyard homes.

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该项目的启动,部分原因是为了配合市政府为将北京中轴线申请联合国世界文化遗产。
The project is part of the city's ambitious plan to apply for recognition of its central axis as a UN World Cultural Heritage site.

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该改造项目年预算10亿元人民币(约合1.58亿美元),几乎已经相当于过去10年北京城市建设费用的总和。此改建计划遭到很多市民的质疑,是否应该耗费如此巨资修建“山寨”的文化遗产。
With an annual restoration budget of 1 billion yuan ($158.80 million) - almost as much as the city spent over the last 10 years combined - the rebuilding plan has caused a public outcry as many residents are questioning the lavish spending on "fake" cultural heritage.

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改建不会对申遗有所帮助
Reconstruction won't aid recognition

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在市政府2月底宣布的改建计划中,包括了6个新建项目,北起北二环的钟鼓楼,南至旧北京城城门,永定门;横穿了北京市中心,贯穿中轴线约7.8公里。该计划还包括了故宫、太庙和中南海的改建。
The restoration plan announced by the municipal government in late February calls for six new construction projects mainly along the city's central axis, which runs through the heart of the capital and stretches 7.8 kilometers from the city gate known as Yongdingmen located in the south to the Bell Tower near the North Second Ring Road. It also includes new construction at the Forbidden City, the Imperial Ancestral Temple and Zhongnanhai, the former imperial garden that includes an inner-city lake.

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由清华大学建筑系教授吕周带领的专家组正在撰写联合国世界文化遗产认定的申请文件。Lü Zhou, a professor of architecture from Tsinghua University, is now heading an advisory group that will write the official application for recognition as a UN World Cultural Heritage site.

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吕周说,在申请中不会提到重建的城门。
Lü said the rebuilt gates won't be mentioned in the city's application.

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“世界级文化遗产的判定最重要的是忠于历史。重建后的产物只是个赝品,已经不再具有以往的意义”,吕周说。
"The most important thing for designation as a world heritage site is to be faithful to history. It is just a replica after you rebuild it, as it is no longer what it was," Lü told the Global Times.

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“重建城门不会有助于申遗”,吕周表示。
"The rebuilding of the gates won't help the application," he said.

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是否该将古城改建,以及该如何改建的争论已经持续了数十年之久。
The debate over if and how to replace the ancient city sites that have been lost has raged for decades.

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在位于北中轴线顶端的地安门是否该重建的意见,市政府和生态环境保护者之间展开了持续数月的争论。地安门于正值拆旧城墙和城门高潮期间的1955年被拆毁。
The local government and conservationists have been in disagreement for months over whether to rebuild the Di'anmen gate near the north end of the central axis. The gate was demolished in 1955, when the campaign to demolish the old city wall and gates was at its height.

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目前该改建计划已被叫停。原因是研究表明,在其旧址重建钟鼓楼城门将会在施工过程中给该地区交通造成额外的巨大压力。
The plan has now been aborted after studies showed that rebuilding the towering city gate at its original location would create additional traffic chaos during construction.

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旧北京重建计划也获得了一些建筑师的支持,如罗哲文相信,该计划将使“现在的人们体会到过去的感觉”。
The rebuilding of old Beijing has earned the support of architects like Luo Zhewen, who believes the projects will allow "people today to experience the feel of the past."

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而其他专家们却反对重建计划。
Many other experts, however, oppose the rebuilding plan.

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“我们无法再重回过去。目前保护文化遗产最紧要的是保护现存的而不是新建假的古迹,”吕周表示。
"We cannot go back to the old days anymore. The top priority of preservation of cultural heritage is not to make fake antiques, but to protect existing ones," Lü said.

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重建的败笔
Restoration failures

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在过去的10年里,北京市政府耗资至少10亿元用于重建和改造古建筑,然而有些项目却远远没有达到其预期的效果。
Over the past decade, the Beijing government has spent at least 1 billion yuan on restoration and renovation of historic architecture, but a number of projects never met expectations.

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前门大街改造项目就是其中一例。位于天安门广场南端的前门大街是古商业街,改造前门大街的原意是重现老北京,然而由于天价的租金,造成只有国际潮流品牌,如星巴克,Zara,哈根达斯,劳力士等入驻前门地区。让人瞠目结舌的每平米日租30-60元的租金意味着没有几家老北京的品牌店能在前门开得起店。
The renovation of Qianmen Dajie, a traditional commercial street just south of Tiananmen Square was supposed to bring back traditional Beijing, but with sky-high rents mostly famous international brands, such as Starbucks, Zara, Haagen-Dazs and Rolex have opened shops in the area. The jaw-dropping rent of 30-60 yuan per square meter per day means few of Beijing's traditional brand stores can afford to open shop.

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在重现北京旧日风貌的理念促动下,2004年永定门重建项目在专家们的一片质疑声中启动。原永定门城门于1957年被拆毁,很多专家认为仿制建筑的永定门城门楼只不过是个“山寨货”。
In a push to revive the city's ancient glory, Beijing also rebuilt Yongdingmen in 2004, despite fierce debate among experts. The original gate had been demolished in 1957 and many experts felt the replica was but a poor imitation.

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清华大学建筑系教授周子轩参与了永定门城门的重建,他表示,即便新城门楼复制得惟妙惟肖,他也对此有种别样的感觉。
Zhu Zixuan, a professor of architecture from Tsinghua University who participated in the rebuilding of the gate, said he has mixed feelings about the reconstruction even though the new gate appears to be an exact replica.

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“新的城门楼显得与周边的环境格格不入,它被各种庞大的建筑如高架桥所包围,从而使城门楼显得异常矮小,失去了其应有的雄壮感”,这位年逾85的建筑专家说,并且表示,这类重建项目耗资过于巨大。
"The new gate doesn't merge with the local environment, as it is surrounded by colossal structures, such as highway overpasses, which makes the gate look tiny and small. It's lost its magnificence," the 85-year-old architect told the Global Times, adding that the restoration came at too high a cost.

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“周边的居民们都迁走了,这就失去了城门周围曾经承载的社区文化。”
"Residents around the area were relocated, and the community culture the gate had fostered was lost."

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胡同保护者张巍深信,北京的“重建风潮”同时也为腐败提供了独特的温床。
Hutong protector Zhang Wei believes the "rebuilding issue" in Beijing has also provided an unique opportunity for corruption.

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“建筑承包商从重建新的伪文化遗产中的获利要远远大于恢复旧貌”,张伟说。
"The contractors can benefit a lot more from building new, fake cultural relics than restoring the old ones," Zhang said.

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新建仿历史遗迹对当地财政也造成了巨大的压力。为重建原来的古建筑,在未来20年间预计将有20万东城区居民需要动迁补偿。
Building replicas of historic sites has also put pressure on local finances. To make way for the rebuilding of the former ancient structures, an estimated 200,000 residents in Dongcheng district will have to be compensated for vacating their homes over the next 20 years.

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目前市政府尚未提供具体的需要动迁的居民数额。
The municipal government has not released detailed information on the specific number of people to be moved.

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“当地居民的动迁和安置需要耗费大量资金。而且当居民们都迁走以后,新的仿古迹周围如何能够重现生机勃勃的社区环境?”周教授提出这个问题。
"A lot of money has to be spent on the removal and relocation of the local residents. How can the new replicas support a vibrant community after the residents have all been moved?" asked Professor Zhu.

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周教授表示,市政府应该致力于提高民生,改造旧的居民区和历史古迹,而不是将原住居民赶走拆掉他们的故居。
Zhu said the local government should focus on improving people's livelihoods and renovating the old residential areas and historic sites, rather than chase them out and tearing the old buildings down.

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历史重现
Back to the past

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尽管《中国文化古迹保护法》禁止重建已被拆毁的历史遗迹,目前全国仍在重建曾经为了实现现代化城市而拆毁的古建筑。
Even though China's Cultural Relics Protection Law bans the rebuilding of heritage sites if they have been destroyed, cities all across China are rebuilding those that have been demolished to make way for modernization.

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很多地方政府将这种重建项目视为吸引旅游业创收的一个有效手段。在山西大同,政府近期启动了大规模的铁塔寺重建计划,这几处铁塔寺在以往都早已被烧毁或者拆毁。
Many local governments envision the reconstruction projects as a sure way to fill their coffers with tourist money. In Datong, Shanxi Province, the government recently launched a massive campaign of rebuilding several temple towers that were long ago burned or demolished.

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2009年,洛阳政府重建了由中国历史上唯一的女皇帝武则天时代修建的两处皇宫和一处佛像。这几处建筑在唐代后期就已经被烧毁。
In 2009, the Luoyang government rebuilt two halls of the emperor's palace and a statue of one Buddha that was originally built during the rule of Wu Zetian, the only woman emperor in the Chinese history. These buildings had been burned to the ground by revolutionaries in Tang Dynasty (618-907).

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江苏省南京市在2007年耗资7亿元重现了在《红楼梦》中描述过的“江宁织造府”。
Nanjing of Jiangsu Province spent 700 million yuan in 2007 to recreate the Jiangning Weaving and Fabric Manufacturing House which was depicted in the classic novel Dream of Red Mansions.

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尽管所有这些项目设计初衷都是会收回初始投资,民众还是担心这些景点最终会无人问津,变成无法吸引游客的鸡肋。
While all the projects were designed to pay back their initial investment, many people worry they will turn into white elephants and fail to attract paying visitors.

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多数市政部门并没有公布他们用于重建项目的花费。
Most governments don't release data showing how much they spend on the reconstruction work.

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“相关部门引资重建城市地标性质的古迹的做法不能说是不正确,但是他们应该在费用上更加透明,”国家文化遗产管理处的专家谢辰生如是说。
"The authorities can't be faulted for wanting to attract investment and rebuild iconic sites as part of their urban landscape, but they should be more transparent as to the costs," said Xie Chensheng, an advisor to the State Administration of Cultural Heritage.

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“保护和修复现有的古迹才是重中之重”,谢表示。
"Protection and renovation of original sites should be the priority," said Xie.

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在北京,公众对于重建计划的质疑之声由于一些其它破败的旧四合院的拆除而更加高涨。
In Beijing the public outcry over the reconstruction plans has also been fueled by the continuing demolition of other old buildings, most notably the siheyuan, or traditional courtyard homes, many of which are dilapidated.

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近些年,随着房地产开发或市政建设项目的开展,大量的四合院被铲平。
A large number of siheyuan in Beijing have been bulldozed in preparation for real estate or city infrastructure projects in recent years.

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根据2001年下半年国家文化遗产管理委员会第三次国家文化遗产普查结果表明,766722处登记备案的物质文化遗产中,有44000处已经消失。
According to the third national cultural relics census conducted by the State Administration of Cultural Relics in late 2011, 44,000 out of a total of 766,722 registered and immovable cultural relics have disappeared.

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据,新华社报道,中央政府就保护国家文化遗产的需求做出了相应的举措。从4月到5月,将派出5个检查团到10个省份地区检查《文化遗产保护法》的执行情况。
The central government has taken specific measures to emphasize the need to protect the country's cultural relics. From April to May, five inspection teams are to be sent to 10 provincial regions to check that the Law on the Protection of Cultural Relics is being adhered to, reported Xinhua.

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专家呼吁制定更加强有力的立法以防止历史古迹被进一步破坏。“目前的处罚条款不足以制约开发商对经济利益的追求,立法机关应修改保护法,加大对破坏历史遗迹者的处罚力度”,谢表示。
Experts are calling for stronger legislation to prevent the destruction of historic sites. "The current penalties no longer restrain the developers' pursuit of profits, and the legislative body should amend the protection law and impose harsher penalties on those who destroy historic sites," Xie said.

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翻译:圣西罗的雪

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[此贴子已经被作者于2012/4/18 12:59:19编辑过]
发表于 2012-4-20 14:13:00 | 显示全部楼层
No comment 无可奉告。
发表于 2012-4-18 13:08:00 | 显示全部楼层
不要指责开发商,没有地他开发个屁!
发表于 2012-4-18 13:41:00 | 显示全部楼层

something special in china.

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[此贴子已经被作者于2012/4/18 13:41:17编辑过]
发表于 2012-4-18 13:57:00 | 显示全部楼层
中国政府胡来的事需要借助外国人来监督,如果这样当初还不如直接变成殖民地多好?可悲呀。

不过楼主因此文章又多了层金身,恭喜下。
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